How Li-Ion Batteries were developed.
Initial scientific tests with the Li-Ion battery started in 1912 under G.N. Lewis but it was not until the early 1970s that the first non-rechargeable lithium batteries became commercially accessible. Attempts to create rechargeable lithium batteries followed in the 1980s but didn’t succeed because of safety issues.
Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the largest electrochemical potential and offers the greatest energy density per weight. Rechargeable batteries utilizing lithium metal anodes (negative electrodes) are capable of delivering both excellent voltage and superb capacity, leading to an extraordinarily high energy density.
After much investigation on rechargeable lithium batteries during the 1980s, it was identified that cycling causes changes on the lithium electrode. These transformations, which are part of natural wear and tear, decrease thermal stability, triggering potential thermal runaway problems. The moment this occurs, the cell temperature swiftly nears the melting point of lithium, resulting in a violent response called “venting with flame”. A large number of rechargeable lithium batteries sent to Japan had to be recalled in 1991 right after a battery in a cellular phone created flaming gases and caused burns to a person’s face.
Because of the underlying instability of lithium metal, in particular in the course of charging, research moved to a non-metallic lithium battery making use of lithium ions. Although a bit lower in energy density than lithium metal, the Lithium-Ion is safe, so long as particular safety measures are taken when charging and discharging. In 1991, the Sony Corporation commercialized the very first Lithium-Ion battery. Other manufacturers followed suit. These days, the Li-Ion Battery is the fastest growing and most exciting battery technology.
The energy density of the Li-Ion Battery is typically twice that of the basic Nickel Cadmium Battery. Improvements in electrode active components have the capability of increasing the energy density close to three times that of the Nickel-cadmium. In addition to good capacity, the load attributes are fairly good and behave similarly to the Ni-Cd in terms of discharge capabilities (similar style of discharge profile, but other voltage). The flat discharge curve offers an effective utilization of the saved electrical power in the desired voltage range.
The Lithium-Ion Battery is a low maintenance battery, an advantage that most other chemistries cannot claim. There is no memory and no regular cycling is required to prolong the battery’s life. In addition, the self-discharge is less than 50 percent compared to Ni-Cd and NiMH, resulting in the Lithium-Ion well suited for modern fuel gauge applications.
The high cell voltage of Lithium-Ion Battery allows the production of battery packs consisting of only one cell. Several of today’s mobile phones function on a solitary cell, an advantage that simplifies battery style and design. Supply voltages of electronic apps have been heading lower, which in turn demands fewer cells per battery pack. To sustain the same power, however, larger currents are essential. This emphasizes the relevance of, particularly low cell resistance to allow unrestricted flow of current.
Strengths and Limitations of Lithium-Ion Batteries.
a. Higher energy density, a potential for yet bigger capacities.
b. ??Comparatively low self-discharge, self-discharge is less than fifty percent that of Ni-Cd and Nickel metal hydride.
??Reduced Upkeep, no occasional discharge is required; no memory.
a. Requires protection circuit, protection circuit limits voltage and current. The battery is safe if not provoked.
b. ??Subject to aging, even if not in use, storing the battery in a temperature controlled area and at 40 percent state-of-charge reduces the aging impact.
c. ??Medium discharge current.
d. ??Subject to transportation regulations, shipment of larger amounts of Lithium-Ion batteries may be subject to regulatory control. This control does not apply to personal carry-on batteries.
e. ??Expensive to produce, about 40 percent higher in cost than Nickel-cadmium. Improved manufacturing procedures and replacement of rare metals with lower cost selections will most likely minimize the expense.
f. ??Not entirely developed, changes in metal and chemical combinations have an effect on battery verification outcomes, in particular with some rapid assessment approaches.
How Li-Ion Batteries were developed.